« 上一頁繼續 »
(12) United States Patent ao) Patent No.: us 6,460,153 Bi
Chou et al. (45) Date of Patent: Oct. 1,2002
(54) APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR UNEQUAL ERROR PROTECTION IN MULTIPLEDESCRIPTION CODING USING OVERCOMPLETE EXPANSIONS
(75) Inventors: Philip A. Chou, Bellevue; Sanjeev Mehrotra; Albert S. Wang, both of Kirkland, all of WA (US)
(73) Assignee: Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA (US)
( * ) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.
(21) Appl. No.: 09/276,955
(22) Filed: Mar. 26, 1999
(51) Int. CI.7 H03M 13/00; H04N 7/30;
(52) U.S. CI 714/746; 348/405; 348/845.1
(58) Field of Search 714/746, 776;
348/403, 405, 845.1
(56) References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
6,012,159 A * 1/2000 Fischer et al 714/755
Hein et al., "Reconstruction of Oversampled Band-Limited Signals From Delta-Sigma Encoded Binary Sequences", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 42, No. 4, Apr. 1994, pp. 799-811.*
Hemami, "Reconstruction-Optimized Lapped Orthogonal Transforms for Robust Image Transmission", IEEE Transactions on Systems for Video Technology, vol. 6, No. 2, Apr. 1996, pp. 161-181.*
Goyal, V.K., et al., "Multiple Description Transform Coding of Images", Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Chicago, Illinios, 674-678 (Oct. 1998).
Goyal, V.K., et al., "Multiple Description Transform Coding: Robustness to Erasures Using Tight Frame Expansions", Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Cambridge, MA, 408, (Aug. 1998).
Goyal, V.K., et al., "Quantized Overcomplete Expansion in
IRW: Analysis, Synthesis, and Algorithms", IEEE Trans.
Information Theory, 44(1), 16-31, (Jan. 1998).
Jiang, W., et al., "Multiple Description Coding Via
Polyphase Transform and Selective Quantization", SPIE
Conference on Visual Communications and Image Process-
ing, 11 p. (Jan. 1999).
Miguel, A.C. et al, "SPIHT for Generalized Multiple Description Coding", Submitted to IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Kobe, Japan, 11 p. (1999). Youla, D.C., "Mathematical Theory of Image Restoration by the Method of Convex Projections", In: Image Recovery: Theory and Applications, Stark, H., (ed.), Academic Press, p. 29-77 (1987).
(List continued on next page.)
Primary Examiner—Stephen M. Baker
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Lyon & Harr, LLP; Katrina
A projection onto convex sets (POCS)-based method for consistent reconstruction of a signal from a subset of quantized coefficients received from an NxK overcomplete transform. By choosing a frame operator F to be the concatenization of two or more KxK invertible transforms, the POCS projections are calculated in R^ space using only the KxK transforms and their inverses, rather than the larger RN space using pseudo inverse transforms. Practical reconstructions are enabled based on, for example, wavelet, subband, or lapped transforms of an entire image. In one embodiment, unequal error protection for multiple description source coding is provided. In particular, given a bit-plane representation of the coefficients in an overcomplete representation of the source, one embodiment of the present invention provides coding the most significant bits with the highest redundancy and the least significant bits with the lowest redundancy. In one embodiment, this is accomplished by varying the quantization stepsize for the different coefficients. Then, the available received quantized coefficients are decoded using a method based on alternating projections onto convex sets.
23 Claims, 17 Drawing Sheets
Ahlswede, R., "The Rate-Distortion Region for Multiple Descriptions without Excess Rate", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-31 (6), pp. 721-726, (Nov. 1985). Albanese, A., et al., "Priority Encoding Transmission", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 42(6), pp. 1737-1744, (1996).
Antonini, M., et al., "Image Coding Using Wavelet Transform", IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 1(2), pp. 205-220, (1992).
Davis, G., et al., "Joint Source and Channel Coding for Image Transmission Over Lossy Packet Networks", SPIE, 2487, pp. 376-387, (May 1996).
El Gamal, A.A., et al., "Achieveable Rates for Multiple Descriptions", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-28 (6), pp. 851-857, (1982).
Gersho, A., et al., Vector Quantization and Signal Compression, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts, Table of Contents, (1992).
Goyal, V.K., et al., "Optimal Multiple Description Transform Coding of Gaussian Vectors", Proceedings of IEEE Data Compression Conference, pp. 1-10, (1998). Hagenauer, J., "Rate-Compatible Punctured Convolutional Codes (RCPC Codes) and their Applications", IEEE Transactions on Communications, 36(4), pp. 389^-00, (Apr. 1988).
Jafarkhani, H., et al., "Multiple Description Trellis Coded
Quantization", IEEE, pp. 669-673, (1998).
Lin, S., et al., Error Control Coding: Fundamentals and
Applications, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
ISBN 0-13-283796-X, Table of Contents, (1983).
Malvar, H.S., "Fast Progressive Wavelet Coding", IEEE, pp.
Noble, B., Applied Linear Algebra, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Table of Contents, (1969). Orchard, M.T., et al., "Redundancy Rate-Distortion Analysis of Multiple Description Coding Using Pairwise Correlating Transforms", IEEE, pp. 608-611, (1997).
Ozarow, L., "On a Source-Coding Problem with Two Channels and Three Receivers", The Bell System Technical Journal, 59(10), pp. 1909-1921, (1980).
Said, A., et al., "A New, Fast, and Efficient Image Codec
Based on Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees", IEEE
Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology,
6(3), pp. 243-250, (Jun. 1996).
Servetto, S.D., et al., "Multiple-Description Wavelet Based
Image Coding", IEEE, pp. 659-663, (1998).
Srinivasan, M., et al., "Multiple Description Subband Cod-
ing", IEEE, pp. 684-688, (1998).
Vaishampayan, V., "Vector Quantizer Design for Delivery Systems", Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, pp. 564-569.
Vaishampayan, V.A., "Application of Multiple Description Codes to Image and Video Transmission over Lossy Networks", 7th International Workshop on Packet Video, pp. 55-60, (Mar. 1996).
Vaishampayan, V.A., "Design of Multiple Description Scalar Quantizers", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 39(3), pp. 821-834, (1993).
Vetterli, M., et al., Wavelets and Subband Coding, Prentice Hall, Engelwood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-097080-8, Table of Contents, (1995).
Wang, Y, et al., "Multiple Description Image Coding for Noisy Channels by Pairing Transform Coefficients", IEEE, pp. 419-424, (1997).
Wang, Y, et al., "Optimal Pairwise Correlating Transform for Multiple Description Coding", IEEE, pp. 679-683, (1998).
Wolf, J.K., et al., "Source Coding for Multiple Descriptions", The Bell System Technical Journal, pp. 1417-1426, (1980).
Zhang, Z., et al., "Multiple Description Source Coding with No Excess Marginal Rate", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 41(2), pp. 349-357, (Mar. 1995).
* cited by examiner